LTC Don Augustine Wall1,2,3,4

M, ID# 571, (1737 - 2 May 1793)
Father:Ulick Wall (of Dungarvan) (a 1711 - b 8 Aug 1759)
Mother:Eleanor Morrison (a 1716 - )
Charts:Benjamin Tappan August lineage
     LTC Don Augustine Wall was born in 1737 at Dungarvan, Co Waterford, Munster, Ireland. He was the son of Ulick Wall (of Dungarvan) and Eleanor Morrison. LTC Don Augustine Wall was christened on 29 Aug 1737 at Dungarvan, Co Waterford, Munster. He immigrated c 1760 to Spain. He married Dona Isabel O'Callaghan, daughter of John O'Callaghan and Joanna (Unknown), on 30 Oct 1786 at Lisbon, Portugal. LTC Don Augustine Wall died on 2 May 1793 at Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cadiz, Spain. He was buried on 3 May 1793 at Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cadiz.
      Our family tradition was that our ancestor was "General Juan Augustine Warle, a Spanish grandee," but that person did not exist. Our ancestor was an Irishman named Augustine Wall, living in Spain and referred to as Don (an honorific title) Agustin Wall, who served in the Irish military in Spain and was knighted in Spain. Documents from his military officer position, knighthood, Catholic religion, and Cadiz, Spain residence, all tie Agustin to our family tradition and to his two daughters who arrived in America from Cadiz in 1802.

By a 8 Aug 1759 deed of mortgage, Augustine Wall a shopkeeper in Dungarvan, Co Waterford, assigned a dwelling house in that town to Martin Dunford of Waterford city. The house was the home of Augustine's deceased father Ulick Wall, a merchant who had obtained a 31-year lease for the home in Nov 1747. Catholics were banned from buying land under a lease of more than 31 years. Augustine, the only son and sole executor of his father, was indebted to Dunford for 114 pounds and therefore assigned the premises for the remainder of the lease term subject to a proviso for redemption. Thus in 1759 Augustine was a Dungarvan shopkeeper and apparently short of cash; thirteen years later Augustine was in quite different circumstances.

Shortly after his lease transaction, Augustine moved to Spain. Knowing the man in Spain known as Agustin Wall was from Munster Province was key because it tied Augustine Wall of Dungarvan to Agustin Wall of Munster residing in Spain. There are two Dungarvans in Ireland, one a small village in Co Kilkenny which is outside Munster Province and the other in Co Waterford, Munster. Dungarvan in Co Waterford is a coastal town on the southeast coast of Ireland situated at the mouth of the Colligan River, which divides the town into two parishes - that of Dungarvan to the west and that of Abbeyside to the east.

A small number of Irish merchants and their ancillaries, primarily from Waterford, Kilkenny, Dublin, Galway and Limerick, became extremely successful in Spain. As fellow Catholics to the Spanish, these Irish were given special economic advantages and essentially dual nationality. The Irish military diaspora refers to the many people of either Irish birth or extraction who served in overseas military forces. Such units were primarily composed of Irishmen and had the word Irish, an Irish place name or an Irish person's name as part of the unit's name. The term "Flight of the Wild Geese" was used historically to refer to Irish soldiers who left to serve in continental European armies in the 16th - 18th centuries.

The custom while living in Spain was the Irish used their original surnames and adopted Spanish first names. Augustine joined the Spanish Army as a cadet in 1761 and began using the Spanish-derived names Agustin Wall and Agustin Wall y Morrison as well as the Latin derivation Augustus. Swordsmen, such as Agustin, who joined the Spanish army units were well documented. To be able to join the Spanish military as a cadet was reserved for families of social distinction, and thus because Agustin was an officer indicates he was recognised as being from a noble Irish line.

The Spanish Army used permanently established foreign regiments. By 1765 Agustin was captain in a regiment noted as being the Ultonia regiment. Ultonia was the latin version of Ulster, an Irish province, and was used specifically in referring to the Ultonia regiment of the Spanish Army. Irishmen serving in the Spanish Army regiments were given Spanish military ranks and the officers were of Irish ancestry. "Irish Pedigrees or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation" lists key historical Irishmen to include Captain Don Augustin Wall who served in 1765 in the Spanish Army as part of the Regimento de Ultonia. Again, Don was an honorific title used in Spain for nobility and royalty. During the 18th century, Spain's Irish regiments saw service not only in Europe but also in the Americas, such as the Ultonia Regiment in Mexico from 1768 to 1771; hence Agustin Wall could also have served in Mexico.

Agustin did extraordinarily well for himself in Spain. The famed and powerful Ricardo Wall of Irish heritage, who served in key Spanish leadership positions including as prime minister, had a political and courtier network including ambassadors, merchants and soldiers such as Edwardo and Agustin Wall, for whom Ricardo provided protection. In a personal letter to a friend, Ricardo acknowledged Edwardo and Agustin Wall were not his relatives but asked his friend to protect them anyway: "Tengo allá en un regimiento irlandés un teniente de mi apellido y no pariente: me ha muerto con repetidas cartas creyendo que estoy en estado de ayudar a sus ascensos y no he contestado a ninguna de sus cartas. Tuve buenos informes estando acá de sus modales y conducta. Si pareciere delante de ti y no se haya pervertido en ese país, protégele en lo que puedas sin agravio de nadie." (Wall to Bucarelli, 20 Aug 1771, Archivo General de Indias, Indiferente General, 1629). "I have there, in an Irish regiment, a lieutenant of my surname and not related to me: he has been killing me with repeated letters, believing that I am in a position to help in his advancement, and I have not answered any of his letters. I had good reports of his manners and conduct. If he should appear before you and has not behaved inappropriately in that country, protect him in what ways you can without injury to anyone." (Translation Marianne Winslett, Oct 2017)

In 1772 Agustin applied in Latin to become a Spanish knight in the Order of Santiago, which was also known as "The Order of St. James of the Sword." The Order's initial objectives incorporated the aims of a religious order, the duty of fighting infidels, protecting the pilgrims of St. James' Way and defending Christendom. The Order comprised several affiliated classes: canons charged with the administration of the sacraments; canonesses occupied with the service of pilgrims; religious knights living in community; and married knights. To join the Order of Santiago the candidate had to be nominated by the King, prove his qualifications and noble genealogy, and have sponsorship. He had to prove that he, his parents and his grandparents were of noble descent by blood with no illegitamacy and not by privilege, and had never worked in manual or industrial labor. The documentation was intensely examined and verified in a 100 plus page report, usually many pages of which are no longer legible in modern times, before approval. In the late 1400s and early 1500s the Catholic monarchs incorporated the Order of Santiago into the Spanish Crown to better manage the military power and wealth the order represented. The first record of an Irishman being admitted was in 1607, and for all five prestigious orders about 200 Irishmen may have been accepted over the centuries. After Agustin's death, the Order was was reduced to a nobiliary institute of honorable character. With the passage of time there was less ability to fulfill the objectives, but their knighthoods were recognized until the 1960s as titles of the highest honor and prestige.

Agustin capitalized on sharing his surname with the famous Ricardo Wall of Spain, although Ricardo's known ancestry showed no linkage to that of Agustin, and Agustin claimed a relationship with other successful men. Absolutismo E Ilustracion en la Espana del Siglo XVIII quotes from Agustin's application for the Order of Santiago: "To the proof of nobility it is added that Don Ricardo Wall, lieutenant General of the Royal Armies of S.M., Secretary of State, knight of the Royal Orders of Saint Genaro and of Santiago, and commander who was from Peñausende is of the same paternal variant of the suitor and relative in a known degree; as well as Don Eduardo Muro knight of the habit of Santiago, current commander of Peñausende, colonel of cavalry and Don Patricio Wall, brother of the latter ... and that Lt. General Macdonel .. was a relative of Catalina Macdonel, mother of the maternal grandmother [sic - grandfather] of the applicant." (A.H.N., Órdenes, Santiago, 9.021) (Translation by Marianne Winslett, Oct 2017) Thus people believed Agustin and Ricardo were related and acted accordingly. After Ricardo died, Agustin was still receiving favors because of the "great and distinguished service of his relative Ricardo Wall." It is unknown if Edwardo and Agustin were related or whether Lt Gen MacDonel was related to Agustin's maternal great grandmother. [Note, again men's names in the above documentation were preceded by the honorific Don.]

Agustin's application for knighthood in the Archivo Historico Nacional de Madrid, Spain stated: "Genealogy of Augustine Wall, lieutenant of the Regiment of Infantry of Ulster, to whom your majesty, who God watches over, has made the favor of the insignia of Knight of the order of Santiago, is a native of the city of Dungarvan, kingdom of Hibernia in Ireland. He has not lived in the Indies. Parents: Ulysses Wall and Leonore Morrison, natives of the above-mentioned city of Dungarvan in the same kingdom. Paternal grandparents: Patrick Wall and Maria Murphy, natives of Cahir, province of Munster, in the above-mentioned kingdom. Maternal grandparents: John Morrison and Johanna Gough, natives of the city of Dungarvan in the above-mentioned province of Munster of the above-cited kingdom. Madrid, September 25, 1772." [Note that each man's and woman's name in the above application was preceded by the honorifics Don and Dona respectively which indicated the Spanish government recognized them as a Spanish noble.]

Next the application for knighthood included Agustin's four-generation genealogical chart using Spanish derivations of the Irish given names and then came two Irish bishops' supporting documentation. "We, by the grace of God and the Apostolic Chair, Jacob, Archbishop of Cashel and Primate of Munster in the kingdom of Hibernia, and John, Bishop of Cork, of the same province, for the holder of this document, certify to all who are or could be interested that the following genealogy is genuine: The very noble Ulick [Ulises] Wall, Cashel, of his legitimate consort Johanna [Juana] Sall, of the same city, considered as son Patric]k [Patricio] Wall, of Cahir, in the same province, which of his legitimate consort, the very noble Mary [Maria] Murphy, legitimate and natural daughter of the very noble William [Guillermo] Murphy and of the very noble Eleanor [Leonor] Bray of Clomell, in the same province, considered as son Ulick [Ulises] Wall, and the aforesaid Ulick Wall of Dungarvan from his legitimate consort Eleanor [Leonor] Morrison procreated the very noble Augustine [Agustin] Wall, current lieutenant in the army of your Catholic Majesty. And this Eleanor Morrison, mother of the very noble Augustine Wall, was the legitimate and natural daughter of the very noble John [Juan] Morrison and Johanna [Juana] Gough, of the same city of Dungarvan and the said province of Munster, and the said John Morrison was the legitimate and natural son of the very noble William [Guillermo] Morrison and Catherine [Catalina] MacDonnell of the county Tyrone of Ulster in this kingdom of Hibernia; and the said Johanna Gough, grandmother of the very noble Augustine Wall, was the legitimate and natural daughter of the very noble Patrick [Patricio] Gough and Eleanor [Leonor] Hoare of Dungarvan in the county of Waterford in the same kingdom of Hibernia. Equally we certify that all the ancestors of the mentioned Augustine Wall, along all lines, have been and are reputed among the most important, noble, and Catholic families, professors and defenders of the faith in this kingdom, and that the coat of arms positioned at the head of this genealogy is the same one that always was used by and currently is used by this honorable and illustrious family. In testimony of which we have signed this document in the place of our shelter/refuge, and have ordered it to be authorized with our seal in Cashel this day 15 June 1771.
Jacob of Cashel, by the order of my illustrious master, Philip Ryan, Secretary
John of Cork, by the order of my illustrious master, Thaddeus Simmich, Secretary
Translated from Latin ... by Eugenio de Benavides"
[Note, again each man's and woman's name in the above documentation was preceded by the honorifics Don and Dona respectively. Names in the above translation were anglicized as per their birth with the Spanish derivation also shown.]

Because the two prelates, themselves members of the nobility, affirmed Agustin's ancestors "on all lines rank among the most important, noble and Catholic families ... in this kingdom," they recognized the Walls equality of status with the landed gentry. Agustin's ancestors were all town dwellers -- merchants and descendants of the municipal councillors -- but barred from office by the Penal Laws against Catholics.

Becoming a knight also required sponsorship and Agustin's sponsors were Irishmen: Maj Gen Juan Sherlock born in Co Waterford; Dr. Diego Purcell born in Munster; Rev Edmundo O'Ryan born in Kilkenny; Joseph O'Hickey born in Co Tipperary; Francisco Hayden, a merchant born in Co Tipperary; Estevan Woulfe born in Co Clare; Diego Kearney, a Franciscan of the Diocese of Lismore; Thomas Connelly, a Dominican born in Co Roscommon; and Phelipe Kearney, a merchant born in Fourmilewater and of the Diocese of Lismore.

Agustin's application to become a knight was approved and in 1772 Agustin, still unmarried, was awarded the title of Caballero: "Pruebas para la concesion del Titulo de Caballero de la Orden de Santiago de Agustin Wall y Morrison, natural de Dungarban [sic], Teniente del Regimiento de Infanteria de Ultonia." Indexed in the Spanish archives as: Caballeros de Santiago; Dungarven (Munster, Irlanda). Thus, Agustin, a native of Dungarvan, Ireland, was a lieutenant in the Spanish Infantry at that time. The second document in the archives appeared to reiterate the above: "Data de habito del caballero de la orden de Santiago, Agustin Wall Morrison." Conveying upon Agustin the title of Caballero of the Order of Santiago made Agustin a knight. The illustrated book containing the family genealogy which family tradition stated his daughters' governess took to America when they immigrated was likely Agustin's copy of his application for knighthood. The coat of arms referenced in his application was not reproduced in the book.

In "Nobilities of Europe," under Foreign Orders of Knighthood: Knights of British Birth or Origin, Agustin is listed as "Augustus Wall: Augustin Wall y Morrison, Teniente del Regimento de Infanteria de Ultonia. Dumgarban, Irlanda." The list indicated he became a knight in 1772. The enumeration showed his mother was a Morrison. According to historical Spanish naming customs customs, a person's name consists of a given name followed by two surnames. The first surname is usually the father's first surname, and the second the mother's first surname. A book by José Miguel de Mayoralgo y Lodo, "La Casa de Ovando: Estudio Historico Genealogico," Coleccion Anejos del boletin de la Real Academia de Extremadura, Real Academia de Extremadura, Spain, 1991 reportedly includes the Wall family genealogy but was not accessible in the US; other available sources based on transcriptions of original Spanish records sufficed to provide Agustin's ancestry.

Agustin was noted as having served in the military with distinction in Spanish America. A Spanish Archives document from 15 May 1773 stated: "Expediente de informacion y licencia de pasagero a indias de Agustin Wall, captain del Regimiento Fijo de Infanteria de Nueva Espana, con su criado Manuel Carbon, natural de Sevilla, a Nueva Espana." The meaning was: Passenger license to the Indies for Agustin Wall captain of the standing infantry regiment of New Spain, with his servant Manuel Carbon, native of Seville. Because the servant would not have been considered important, this researcher believes Agustin was possibly residing in Seville. Because the transcription was unspecific, whether Agustin was going to the Spanish West Indies (Antilles in the Caribbean) or the Spanish East Indies (Philippines, and Marianna and Caroline Islands in the Pacific) is not known. New Spain, was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, the mass of which was north of the Isthmus of Panama and from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, to include Mexico, Central America, much of the Southwestern and Central United States, Spanish Florida, the Louisiana part of New France, as well as some Pacific Islands. Given the breadth of this land claim, regiments were frequently sent to fend off aggressors in one or another area, but a single military action specific to 1773, when Agustin was noted in New Spain, in either the East or West Indies was not evident. Men detached from city troops formed into the new Fijo de Luisiana Regiment during late 1769 and 1770, headquartered in New Orleans, and as a captain Agustin likely served in Lousianna as well. In 1774 Agustin was serving as a captain in the Regimiento Fijo de Infanteria de la Corona based in Veracruz, New Spain, most likely the portion that later became Mexico.

Agustin also served as a sponsor and personal witness for the applications for Spanish knighthood of Pedro Alonso O'Crouley of Cadiz, Spain in 1771; Dionisio O'Kelly in 1772; Juan O'Kelly in 1772; and Terencio O'Neille in 1786. This does not mean these were the only applicants Agustin supported, but that these were the surviving records in the Spanish Military Archives. Other sponsors for these men were many of the same men who sponsored Agustin -- Sherlock, Purcell, O'Ryan, Hayden, Woelfe, Connelly and the Kearneys -- indicating the circles in which these knights of Irish heritage moved.

As knights, members of the Order of Santiago had significant wealth. The revenue of the Order came from land, pasturage, industries, tolls and rights of way, taxes and tithes. Each district was required to support the knights living in their area.

Agustin requested military leave to go to Ireland to recover his territorial inheritance in accordance with English requirements. His colonel and inspector supported the request and the Viceroy approved the request on 27 Jul 1784. On 22 Feb 1785 it was reported Don Agustin Wall, Capt. of the Regiment Fijo of Corona Infantry, had been granted six months leave to return to Spain from New Spain so he could travel to Ireland. Agustin was reported to be an only child and his father was already deceased, so it is unknown how he came into this inheritance.

On 12 Aug 1786 Agustin was licensed to marry Dona Isabel O'Callaghan. After the fact, Joseph de Barbachano certified in 1793 that Agustin was given permission to marry. Given the historical churches of the time, Agustin likely married in Iglesia de San Jorge, Sanlucar de Barrameda. Only a few places, like Sanlucar, belong to the diocese of Sevilla, Spain as opposed to the diocese of Cadiz. Iglesia de San Jorge, Sanlucar de barrameda, Spain was also likely where the Wall family attended church. On modern maps the church is off at the side because it was built next to the shipyards that the English were using. The current church consists of a single nave, with a main entrance to the main altar, adorned with an altarpiece made by Peter Relingh, which was presided over by an image of the Virgin brought from Naples. Inside is also the Cristo de los Barqueros, of seafaring devotion. In 1987 the temple and the adjacent dependencies were ceded by the English Catholic Church to the Brotherhood of Our Lady of the Rocio, founded in 1677.

In Sep 1786 Agustin received military orders attaching him to the main base at the Plaza at Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cadiz Province, Spain. In 1786 when he married, Agustin retired from the active military and served as a retired officer at Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Archives of Simancas and Segovia.) Sanlúcar de Barrameda is in northwest Cádiz Province is 32 miles by road north of Cádiz city and 74 miles from Seville. Sanlúcar de Barrameda served as a port of departure for America, so Agustin likely became familiar with the city during his military career and postings to America. Sanlúcar de Barrameda was apparently too far outside Cadiz city for Agustin to be included in the 1791 Cadiz city census.

Agustin Wall and Isabel O'Callaghan were not included in the currently available birth, marriage or death records of Ireland, Portugal or Spain online. For Agustin, the Dungarvan, County Waterford, Ireland parish records for baptisms and marriages were not available for the required years of 1737 and 1786, dating from 1787 and 1809 respectively. If his daughters' births were recorded in Dungarvan, Irish birth records have a gap from 1787 until 1811, thus circumventing the period of time when his daughters were born overseas, and Irish records of foreign births were begun after the dates required. Recording of records in databases for the British Nationals Born Overseas began in 1818; Widows and Orphans of Spanish Officers began in 1826, Spanish military personnel files began in 1835; Records of Widows and Orphans of Spanish Officers only has records beginning in 1826; and Province of Cadiz Passports began in 1810. The Cadiz Actas de Bautisomos 1738-1884 included the baptism records of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, however very few records were included from 1790, when Elizabeth was estimated to have been born, and the years 1786-1789 and 1791-1792 which would have possibly had Wall births were not included in the collection in 2017.

The following databases contained no Walls in 2017: Catholic Diocese of Sandander and Avila; Immigrant Ancestors Project in Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo; RootsWeb Obituary Index for Spain; in in 2017 Spain Baptisms 1502-1940, Spain Marriages 1565-1950, Spain Deaths 1600-1920; latter contained the Simon Wall family. As yet's Catholic Church Records 1307-1985 has no search function for its over 3 million records, but this database does not include Cadiz Province. The Province of Seville Municipal Records 1293-1966 contained many Wall records all post-dating Agustin Wall's family. The orphans records for Cadiz, Expedientes de Ninos Expositos, registero de Entradas for 1801-1802 did not include records for Christina or Elizabeth Wall under any derivation of those names, but these were examined before this researcher knew that the girls were christened Maria and Isabel. Further research is needed in several areas as more records are added online. The portion of the Municipal Records of the Province of Cadiz 1784-1956 ( which have been digitized on as of 2017 did not yet include Agustin.

Agustin was wealthy so he created a will and in order to do this in Spain he would have hired a notary public. The Cadiz City Testaments [Wills] 1531-1920,, are organized by the years the notaries worked and then alphabetized by the testator, but the late 1700s and early 1800s wills have not yet been added to this digital collection as of 2017 and Sanlúcar de Barrameda is not included as a separate location. Testimony about Agustin's will on 22 Jun 1793 stated his 29 Sep 1791 will noted he married Isabel Ocallaghan at Albazea, Portugal; he had two daughters for whom he appointed guardians Hermo Power and Bernardo Fallon; and he divided his fortune into three parts: one for his wife and others for each daughter. Testimony stated he had one more daughter born on the "previous year past."

Agustin's salary ended on 2 May 1793 and was 54 escudos de Vellon with two deductions, including for the military charity fund (Monte Pio militar) to which his wife applied for a pension. Agustin's death date was established as 2 May 1793 based on that being the day his pay stopped based on 3 Jul 1793 documentation from the military pay office in Seville, Spain.

Fernando Albrecht, the commissioner of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of his vicarage, city and the enviorons, certified Agustin's 3 May 1793 burial in the main church parish of Sanlúcar de Barrameda stating the body of Don Agustin Wall, native of Ireland, Lieutenant Colonel retired, Knight of the Order of Santiago, and married to Isavel Ocallaghan, was adminstered the sacraments by Antonio Bu?on, the curate. This indicates the 56-year-old Agustin died abruptly because he was already deceased with the sacraments were given.

Other detailed Sources:

--Samuel Fannin, "Spanish Archives of Primary Source Material," Irish Genealogical Research Society, London, England, p. 10, accessed in 2017, covers Irish gentlemen in Spain and their parish records, (Agustin Wall as witness)
--Emilio de Cárdenas Piera (1915-2005), "Caballeros de la Orden de Santiago: Siglo XVIII," Hidalguia, Madrid, 1996, p. 1773.
--Ruvigny and Raineval, The Nobilities of Europe, Vol. 1, Mellville, London, 1909, p. 265,
--Rene Chartrand, The Spanish Army in North America 1700-1793, Osprey Publishing, Oxford, England, 2011.
--Flight of the Wild Geese, accessed 2017,
--Order of Santiago, accessed 2017,
--New Spain, accessed in 2017,
--Dungarvan, accessed in 2017,
--Sanlucar de Barrameda, accessed in 2017,
--Julian Walton, "Irish Inhabitants of Cadiz in 1791," The Irish Genealogist, Volume 5, p. 768-771 (did not include Agustin Wall)
--John O'Hart (1824–1902), "Irish Pedigrees or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation," James Duffy & Company, Dublin, Ireland, McGlashan & Gill, 1876, Volume 2, Appendix 1, section 87: Irishmen Who Have Served in the Spanish Army; p. 659, 672; electronic p. 77, 90;,2108,419,2140;347,2142,418,2172;513,2143,638,2179; 1876. Also other editions were; also 1892,
--Catholic Records for Dungarvan, Ireland:
--Dr. Diego Tellez Alarcia, Irish Migration Studies in Latin America: Richard Wall, the Irish-Spanish Minister, Society for Irish Latin American Studies, PhD dissertation, Universidad de la Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain, 20 Jun 2006;, p. 132-133; supplemented by email, diego dot tellez at unirioja dot es, Sep 2017 to Virginia Winslett (patronage between Richardo Wall and Agustin Wall)
--Dr. Diego Tellez Alarcia, Absolutismo E Ilustracion en la Espana del Siglo XVIII: El Despotismo Ilustradode Don Ricardo Wall, Universidad de la Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain, 2010, p. 166-168; softcopy provided by Dr. Alarcia to V. Winslett. (Agustin Wall's career)
--Agustin Wall military orders to New Spain, Archivo General de Indias, 15 May 1773,, accessed through Portal of Archivos Espanoles.
--Agustin Wall y Morrison, Application for Caballeros of Santiago to include his family genealogy and interrogation, Archivo Historico Nacional, 1772,,
accessed through Portal of Archivos Espanoles.
--Epifanio Borreguero Garcia, “Catalogo del Fondo de Pensiones por Viudedad o de Toca y Orfandad Perteneciente a la primera seccion del Archivo General Militar de Segovia, Primera Parte,” Ministerio de Defensa, Legajo [file] number 1.197, year 1793, Expedientes p. 107 and Indice Alfabetico de Nombres p. 177,, [Catalog of Pensions for Widows and Orphans]
--Cadiz Orphans Records, Expedientes de Ninos Expositos, registero de Entradas for 1801-1802, roll 31, section 5, p. 690, unindexed, (no Wall orphans, possibly because of the wrong year for when they were orphaned)
--Cadiz Actas de Bautisomos 1738-1884 included the birth records of Sanlúcar de Barrameda for 1790, Vol 71, Roll 2, Film 8033942, (no Wall birth in 1790.)

Children of LTC Don Augustine Wall and Dona Isabel O'Callaghan


  1. [S1] "Virginia Winslett Research."
  2. [S569] Hubert Gallwey, The Wall Family in Ireland.
  3. [S391] Dr. Micheline Kerney Walsh, Spanish Knights of Irish Origin.
  4. [S622] Isabel O'Callaghan Pension File.

Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall1,2,3,4,5,6

F, ID# 572, (11 Oct 1790 - 14 Sep 1825)
Father:LTC Don Augustine Wall (1737 - 2 May 1793)
Mother:Dona Isabel O'Callaghan (30 Jul 1764 - )
Charts:Benjamin Tappan August lineage
     Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall was born on 11 Oct 1790 at Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cadiz, Spain. She was christened on 12 Oct 1790 at Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cadiz. She was the daughter of LTC Don Augustine Wall and Dona Isabel O'Callaghan. Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall immigrated on 16 Jul 1802 to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She married George Palmer, son of James Zerubabel Palmer and Sophia Watt, on 20 May 1810 at Christ Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall married William Bell Wood, son of CPT Joseph Wood II and Margaret 'Peggie' Bell, on 8 Dec 1819 at Petersburg, Virginia. Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall died on 14 Sep 1825 at Petersburg, Virginia, at age 34.
      Our family tradition, as related by my great grandmother Ella Virginia August, was "the maternal grandfather of Virginia Wood was Juan Augustine Warle, a general in the Spanish Army. His daughter Marie was born in Madrid, Spain. She was the mother of Virginia Wood who inherited the Spanish type of face from her. When sixteen years old Marie Warle and her sister Christina were sent to the United States by an uncle and kept there in hiding to prevent their inheriting a large fortune in Spain. The two girls were sent to America under the care of a governess who secretly brought with her a book containing the genealogy of the family -- an illustrious one. The governess also brought to America a Roman Catholic prayer book which had belonged to the mother of the girls. The book containing the family tree was a large red book and had in it the family coat of arms in color. The book was preserved by the family and Benjamin Tappan August (1846-1918), the son of Virginia Wood, remembered seeing the book when a child in his home in Vicksburg, MS. The book was lost during the 1863 burning of Vicksburg in the Civil War." My great grandmother also reported Virginia Wood's mother was the widow of a Mr. Palmer from which union her son James Palmer was born.

The name discrepancies in our family traditon are partially attributable to the anglicization of the given names of the immigrant sisters from Isabel to Elizabeth to Eliza and from Maria de Rosario Juana to Mary Johanna to Maria, although it is unknown why our family thought our ancestor was Mary instead of Eliza. Confusion regarding the name of our Eliza in my family may have stemmed from Mary Johanna having a granddaughter born in Richmond in 1837 named Eliza Maria Clarke. That my great grandmother of the Eliza Wall line was living in Richmond close to her third cousins descended from Mary Johanna makes the decades long search to find that part of the family ironic.

Because our ancestors' names were misreported as Warle instead of Wall, exhaustive searches in US and Spanish primary records did not provide evidence of a Marie Warle or Juan Augustine Warle. However, parts of the above family tradition were slowly proved correct. Key was that Valeria Palmer, a descendant of George Wall Palmer of Massachusetts born to George Palmer and Eliza Wall in Philadelphia, had a family tradition similar to ours -- that George's mother Eliza was born in Spain to English citizens.

At birth the three Wall sisters were christened Maria de Rosario Juana Margarita Wall in 1789, Isabel Wall in 1790 and Maria Leonor Wall in 1792, and they were all alive in 1793. Isabel was named after her mother. The name for Isabel in English is Elizabeth; hence when Isabel immigrated she used the English version of her name -- Elizabeth or Eliza. Newspaper notices of events in her adult life provided no indication Eliza ever used the name Marie as she was called in our family tradition or that she was named Maria Isabel at birth.

Eliza's sister Maria Leonor was named after their grandmother Eleanor Morrison and maternal 2nd great grandmother Eleanor Hore. Neither of Elizabeth's siblings named Maria was christened with the given name Cristina-- as noted in our family traction -- and the sister named Mary who immigrated was never called Christina in American records. However, Eliza was said to have named her daughter Christina after her sister, indicating Eliza may possibly have had another sister. A fourth sibling was likely born in 1787 but was deceased by 1793.

On 23 May 1793 Fernando Albrecht, the commissioned in the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of his vicarage, city and the enviorons, re-certified the baptism certificates of the three living daughters of Agustin Wall and Isabel O'Callaghan for her widow's pension application. In turn Fernado Albrecht's re-certification was certified by Juan Cadaval and Luis Dom. Ortega y Z/Tevallos. Isavel's (sic) recertification stated: In Book 2, p. 2, City of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, on 12 Oct 1790, baptized Isavel, born 11 Oct 1790 the legitimate daughter of Don Agustin Wall, Lieutenant Colonel of the main Plaza, and Dona Iasavel Ocallaghan. Don Diego Plunckett stood in as godfather on behalf of Don David Ocallaghan, a wealthy businessman in Philadelphia; "Don" was an honorific form of address. The relatives were advised to teach the child spritual lessons and church doctrine by Don Diego Plunckett. Don Diego Plunkett attended the Irish College at Alcala de Henares, Spain in 1746 for Irish students of the priesthood.

Sometime between 1793 and early 1802 the Wall daughters apparently became orphans. Although no death record has yet been found for their mother, our family tradition was that two daughters were sent to America by an uncle to prevent them from inheriting a large fortune in Spain. The reverse may also have been true: that their wealthy American uncle sent for the girls so they could live well with their American family. In 1802 the three Wall daughters would have been 13, 12 and 10, if they were all alive. Whether Maria Leonor who would have been age 10 in 1802 was taken in by another family member or was deceased is unknown, but she did not go to America at that time.

Two Wall siblings immigrated in 1802 and were listed on the manifest as Mary and Eliza. Because Mary was listed first on the ship manifest and first in subsequent records of her uncle David Callaghan's estate, Mary was believed to be the oldest and thus was the daughter named Maria de Rosario Juana Margarita Wall, a fact reaffirmed by one of her descendants whose ancestor was Mary Johanna.

Historian Elana Messner noted the wealthy, the influential and the merchants were quite international: corresponded with each other all over the world, spoke at least three languages and travelled constantly. There were no passenger liners at the time, so the well-to-do Wall family would have contacted a ship captain and bargained with him by which the family paid for the use of the captain's quarters and transportation for themselves and their goods. The connection was therefore not to the ship, but to the ship captain, who the girls' well-to-do merchant uncle in Philadelphia likely knew very well and who likely arranged their journey.

On 16 Jul 1802 the American Brig Amelia arrived in Philadelphia, PA from Cadiz, Spain with Master James R. Calendar. The only passengers were Miss Mary Wall, Miss Eliza Wall and Doña Josephas (Josefas), servant. Doña was a Spanish title of respect originally used for women of royalty and nobility and later for a married or widowed woman comparable to Mrs; unlike Mrs, the title Doña was usually used before the given name only, hence no last name was given for Doña Josefas. The two girls had one trunk, bed and bedding each and Josephas had 2 trunks, bed and bedding. A fourth line below Josefas' name could not be deciphered, but could be either "James" or "family" plus the words "two trunks." In addition to their household goods the sisters brought to America two barrels of beef, one barrel of pork and two barrels of bread flour on the ship and in their cabin had "five dozen claret wine, four dozen sherry wine and two dozen maoara (? mauro) wine" in their cabin just for them. Their ship, the Brig Amelia, was built in Philadelphia where the girls' merchant uncle lived and was owned by Philadelphia merchants. The same ship and captain were used by Benjamin Franklin when he traveled to and from Europe, and so the ship may have been prestigious.

Mary and Eliza presumably were sent to America to live with relatives. The maternal O'Callaghan uncle who according to family traditon sent the girls to Philadelphia likely sent them to live with Callaghan relatives in the city. Elizabeth's godfather was David Ocallaghan, a wealthy Philadelphia merchant and the brother of their mother Isabel, so in all likelihood Mary and Eliza lived with David and his family. This is supported by David's estate settlement in 1804 referring to the sherry sold for Mary and Eliza and to monies due from them.

Mary and Eliza's father Augustine was noted in his records as an only child, although it is unknown whether this was accurate, thus the girls were unlikely to have a Wall aunt or uncle in Philadelphia although there were a number of Wall families in 1802 who may have been related to them: Charles Wall, a breeches maker with shops at 64 High and 1 Elbow Lane; George, a tailor with a boarding house at 11 Pennsylvania; John, a flour merchant with shops as 24 Walnut and 64 S. Wharves; Mary, a spinster at 15 Waggoners Alley; Mary, a widow residing next to 17 Pewterplatter Alley; Richard living at 113 N. Front; and Elizabeth a tobacconist at 217 S. Second Street -- the street where Mary Wall's future husband later had his shops.

What became of the daughters' governess Dona Josephas who immigrated with the sisters is unknown, but Josepha/Josefa(s) was a very uncommon name in Philadelphia. No women named Josepha or Josefa were listed separately in the 1803-1805 city directory. A Maria or Mary Josepha Baptistta, age 40, born in 1771 and died 7 Jan 1811 in Philadelphia, the year after both girls married, was in the records of Free Quakers - Second Reformed; she was one of only twos Josepha in Philadelphia records from 1802 to 1850. The only other Josepha during that period in the city was the former Empress of Mexico Ana Maria Josepha Ramona de Huarte de Iturbide y Muniz, who sought refuge in the city sometime after 1824.

According to a 26 May 1810 Philadelphia, PA newspaper, Eliza was married by Rev. Dr. Abercrombie to George Palmer, a printer, at Christ Church, an Episcopal church in the Old City neighborhood of Philadelphia. Church records show neither the Wall family nor George Palmer were active at this church, however as a leading merchant George was likely able to arrange to have the ceremony there. The church had no additional recordsin 2017.

Jay Jackson of Fairfax Co, VA has original Wall family letters inherited from Jay's grandfather Hunter Wood Beadles, the third great grandson of Augustine Wall. One document has two letters on the same paper. The first part was written in 1815 by Mary Clay, a cousin and the wife of James R. Clay. The second letter was written by Eliza in 1815 to her sister Mary Johanna. The letter is in poor condition missing several edges and it has been folded for many years. Given that two letters are on the same page, these may be copies of the originals. Another letter either to or from a Benjamin Boliver in Richmond concerns the death of Charles Callaghan, thought to be Carlos O'Callaghan who was Eliza Wall's uncle and a Philadelphia merchant. This letter is very hard to read.

A 1900 letter -- written over 75 years after Eliza's death -- from William W. Porter a 74-year old judge to Benjamin August -- both men being grandsons of Eliza's second husband William B. Wood and both being first and third cousins to each other -- noted who William B. Wood married second. However, the wife's name was erased and in a different handwriting and ink someone wrote "a Mrs. Palmer (who was Marie Wall)." The handwriting is unknown to this researcher and thus is from prior to my great grandmother's generation and may be that of her father Benjamin August. This altered letter may be the source of the erroneous information that our ancestor was named Marie.

Note there were other Elizabeth Walls contemporary to our ancestor in Philadelphia. Thus, data from our family tradition was critical in eliminating the possibility other women of that name were our ancestor: our ancestor was an orphan who immigrated to America about age 16 with her sister. A mystery that remains is how Eliza acquired her supposed "dark good looks which were passed on to the following generation" because Eliza was pure Irish!

If Eliza was living with George Palmer in Philadelphia after her 1810 marriage almost until his 1817 death in Lousiana, another child could likely have been conceived in addition to their sons George and James, the latter born in 1814, but there are no unaccounted for young children in 1820 in Eliza's household. A number of younger Palmer children died in Philadelphia during that time, including one buried at Christ Church where Eliza and George were married, but none were identified as theirs.

Where Eliza was between when she became a widow with two small sons in Philadelphia in early 1817 and in 1819 when she married William Wood in Petersburg, VA and how she got to Petersburg, which was adjacent to Richmond, is uncertain. Eliza had strong business and family connections to the well-to-do Philadelphia merchant class which extended all the way to Richmond where Eliza's sister Mary already resided with her merchant husband John Williams. Those connections likely ultimately linked her to her next husband William Wood, a Petersburg, VA merchant.

Alternatively, researcher Elana Messner hypothesized Eliza could have been associated with one of the well-known Philadelphia schools. Several girls' schools were in Philadelphia, and one in particular was run by an aristocratic widowed Frenchwoman named Deborah Grelaud. Madame Grelaud's French School, also called Madame Grelaud's Seminary, was a Philadelphia boarding school for girls operating from approximately 1809 until 1849. Among the serious academics required were an immersion in the language and culture of France and a requirement to become familiar with the cultures of other European nations as well. Many prominent northerners and southerners sent their daughters to such institutions to participate in rigorous academic curricula and learn about elite aspects of culture. This school was patronized by Washington's grandchildren the Custises as well as by the President's wife, Dolly Madison -- one or both of which families apparently hired governesses from that school. No records of the school remain, but a handful of letters written by former pupils exist in varying archives. Dolly Madison was the aunt of William Wood's first wife Elinor who died possibly in childbirth about age 35 in Feb 1819 in Petersburg. If Dolly Madison contacted Deborah Grelaud to secure a governess for William's children and if Deborah Greland knew Eliza Wall Palmer, Eliza may have come to Petersburg as a governess for William's seven children who were likely newborn to age 14.

Regardless of how Eliza got from Philadelphia to Petersburg, Eliza and William subsequently married. Petersburg, VA newspapers noted the marriage in 1819 by Rev Syme of Mrs. Eliza Palmer of Philadelphia to William Bell Wood, a merchant, in Petersburg and her death in that city in 1825 from childbirth.

Detailed sources:
--Manifest of the Brig Amelia, 16 Jul 1802, Philadelphia, PA (immigration of Elizabeth and Christina Wall)
--1802 Philadelphia City Directory,

Children of Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall and George Palmer

Children of Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall and William Bell Wood


  1. [S12] "Ella Virginia Auguste Perry (1870-1971) Research: Collection of hand-written Lanphier, Martin, Perry, Russell and Other Family Documents."
  2. [S438] Montpelier Plantation: Madison Family Genealogy.
  3. [S504] William B. Wood Abstracts.
  4. [S564] Robert Palmer Research.
  5. [S622] Isabel O'Callaghan Pension File.
  6. [S568] Palmer-Wall Family Records.

Maria de Rosario Juana Margarita Wall1,2,3,4

F, ID# 573, (5 May 1789 - 30 Aug 1824)
Father:LTC Don Augustine Wall (1737 - 2 May 1793)
Mother:Dona Isabel O'Callaghan (30 Jul 1764 - )
     Maria de Rosario Juana Margarita Wall was born on 5 May 1789 at Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cadiz, Spain. She was the daughter of LTC Don Augustine Wall and Dona Isabel O'Callaghan. Maria de Rosario Juana Margarita Wall was christened on 7 May 1789 at Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cadiz. She immigrated on 16 Jul 1802 to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She married John Williams on 2 May 1810 at Saint Augustine's Catholic Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Maria de Rosario Juana Margarita Wall died on 30 Aug 1824 at Richmond, Virginia, at age 35.
      Agustin and Isabel Wall's daughter was named Maria de Rosario Juana Margarita; Maria de Rosario means our "lady of the rosary." Juana is the Spanish version of Johanna indicating Maria was named after her maternal grandmother. In America she used the name Mary Johanna Wall. On 23 May 1793 Fernando Albrecht, the commissioned in the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of his vicarage, city and the enviorons, recertified the baptism certificates of the three living daughters of Agustin Wall and Isabel O'Callaghan for her widow's pension application. In turn Fernado Albrecht's re-certification was certified by Juan Cadaval and Luis Dom. Ortega y Z/Tevallos. Maria de Rosario's recertification stated: In Book 1, p. 28, City of Sanlúcar de Barrameda on 7 May 1789 Don Fernando Albrecht baptized in the main church parish of the city Maria del Rosaria Juana Margarita born 5 May 1789, the legitimate daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Don Agustin Wall, Knight of the order of Santiago and a member of the church(?) and Dona Isabell Callaghan. Dona Isabel Foonon stood in as godmother on behalf of Dona Margarita Obrien, resident of the city of Cadiz. The relatives were advised to teach the child spritual lessons and church doctrine by Don Ramon Garcia O'Meneres.

Orphan sisters Mary and Elizabeth Wall immigrated to America in 1802. The Mary who immigrated was the one born in 1789 and not the Mary born in 1792 based on the name Mary used in America. On 2 May 1810 Maria Wall was married to John Williams by Rev. Michael Hurley with Thomas Burke and his wife as witnesses in St Augustine's Church; Thomas was likely the merchant located at 165 Mulberry Lane. (Transcribed in Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, Marriages 1801-1830, volume 13, p. 180; original St Augustine's Church record shows her name as Maria Wall). John Williams was noted as a merchant in the marriage newspaper notice. (New York Weekly Museum Newspaper, Newspaper Extractions from the Northeast 1704-1930, Williams-Wall, 19 May 1810). Note to avoid confusion there were other women named Mary Wall who married men named John Williams in 1825 in Mississippi and 1839 apparently in New York.

Mary's obituary in the Intelligencer and Petersburg Commercial Advertiser noted she left behind five children and was the wife of John Williams of Baltimore, MD who had been a merchant in Petersburg for years. Mary died in 1824, the year before her sister Elizabeth died in neighboring Petersburg.

Mary and Elizabeth were the granddaughters of Ulick Wall of County Waterford, Ireland. In that regard, of interest in St. Augustine's Church documents were the following three 1814, 1816 and 1818 marriage records. The 6 Jan 1814 marriage by Rev. Matthew Carr of a Ulick Wale and Mary Ann Maitland with witnesses John and Thomas Maitland (p. 183) draws to mind the name of the Ulick Wall in Ireland. In 1810 the Philadelphia City Directory listed 9 Wall families but no Wale families. Ulick was not listed in the 1814 Philadelphia City Directory and died in New Orleans, LA in 1840. Also in the church's records were the 25 Nov 1816 marriage by Rev. Michael Hurley of Thomas Maitland and Anna Palmer with John Maitland and Ulick Wale as witnesses (p. 185); it is unknown if Anna was a sister-in-law of Mary's sister Elizabeth Wall who married George Palmer. Also of interest was the 17 May 1818 marriage by Rev Michael Hurley of James W. Palmer, Elizabeth Wall's brother-in-law, and Mary Breen with John Coleman and Thomas and Elizabeth Palmer as witnesses (p. 186). Thomas Palmer was most likely James' brother and Elizabeth may have been a first wife of Thomas. (

Child of Maria de Rosario Juana Margarita Wall and John Williams


  1. [S3] "Elizabeth Harriet Perry Research."
  2. [S1] "Virginia Winslett Research."
  3. [S622] Isabel O'Callaghan Pension File.
  4. [S628] Marilyn Jackson Research.

James A. Palmer

M, ID# 574, (c 1811 - 18 Aug 1835)
Father:George Palmer (24 Sep 1784 - 10 Feb 1817)
Mother:Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall (11 Oct 1790 - 14 Sep 1825)
     James A. Palmer was born c 1811 at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was the son of George Palmer and Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall. James A. Palmer died on 18 Aug 1835 at Franklin, Tennessee.
      James Palmer was remembered by William W. Porter, a grandson of William Wood, and as having died in Tennessee. James was likely the James Palmer who was the purchaser of his step-father William Wood's inn from the 1831 estate, although it could have been his uncle by the same name.

At the time of his step-sister Mary's birth, her family was living in Nashville just a few miles north of Franklin, so likely the Wood family had connections or even land there that caused the children to return to the area after William's death. After William's death James moved to Franklin, TN where five of his step-sisters moved. Susan Madison Wood Porter who adopted her step-sister Christina died in Franklin from cholera in 1833; Margaret B Wood Tappan married there and adopted her step-sister Virginia and then step-sister Christina; Mary M. B. Wood Parrish died there in 1834; then James Palmer himself died in 1835. James' obituary noted he was highly regarded in the community, but did not mention the cause of death, which at 24 years of age, would have been newsworthy or any of his family in the local area.

At the time of James' death, there were many Palmer families living in the Franklin, TN area who had arrived from Virginia. In searching the Virginia Palmer families, none were found to have connections to our line.

Other Sources:
--James A. Palmer obituary 18 Aug 1835, Western Weekly Review, Franklin, TN 21 Aug 1835
--Death Notices and Other Gleanings from the Western Weekly Review, Franklin, Tennessee 1831-1840, 21 Aug 1835, abstracted by Jonathan Kennon Thompson Smith in 2004, (James A. Palmer, Franklin, Tenn, died August 18, 1835 in the 24th year of his age.)

George Palmer1,2,3,4

M, ID# 575, (24 Sep 1784 - 10 Feb 1817)
Father:James Zerubabel Palmer (1748 - c 1799)
Mother:Sophia Watt (a 1754 - a 1810)
     George Palmer was born on 24 Sep 1784 at Kelso, Roxburgh, Scotland. He was the son of James Zerubabel Palmer and Sophia Watt. George Palmer was christened on 31 Oct 1784 at Kelso, Roxburgh. He immigrated c 1800 to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He married Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall, daughter of LTC Don Augustine Wall and Dona Isabel O'Callaghan, on 20 May 1810 at Christ Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. George Palmer died on 10 Feb 1817 at New Orleans, Louisiana, at age 32. His estate was probated on 12 Feb 1817 at New Orleans, Louisiana.
      George Palmer, the second son of James Palmer and Sophia Watt arrived with his siblings, and possibly mother Sophia Watt, in Philadelphia after their father died in England or Scotland. The family likely arrived in 1800 because his brother Thomas' printing business was in the city directory in 1801 and by the following year Thomas and George had a joint listing. George's brother Thomas reportedly noted the family arrived in 1804 in his memoir in Abby Hemenway's biography in 1860.

George's grandson Charles Dana Palmer echoed the family traditional descent from George Palmer and Eliza Wall but instead stated George was born in 1781 and the siblings immigrated to America in 1800 (The Biographical History of Massachusettes: Biographies and Autobiographies of Leading Men in the State.) Passage records have not been found; possibly they traveled to Halifax or another location and took local transport to Philadelphia; also in 1820 Admiralty passenger lists in London were destroyed by fire.

George and his partner and brother Thomas were successful printers in Philadelphia. George ran the family printing press when his brother Thomas was commuting to work in Washington DC. Some of their early works with the byline of T. H. Palmer, list "Printed by G. Palmer, Philadelphia." Based on the city directory entries, Thomas and George's families apparently resided together at 225 Spruce Street in Philadelphia from 1810 - 1813 at the height of their joint business success. George and Eliza Wall had at least two sons.

The 1799 and 1800 city directories do not mention the Palmer business, but the Palmers were in the 1802-1817 editions, which draws into question whether the family arrived in Philadelphia earlier than reported. Because there were two Thomas Palmers listed as printers, there is no way to tell if the 1801 listing on N. 7th Street refers to George's brother. By 1802 Thomas and George were in business together at 52 Philburt Street; moving in 1803 next to 58 Zane; by 1804 continuing at 58 Zane and opening a second shop at 116 High. This was the same year a Thomas Palmer, composition maker, opened a shop for two years at Carter's Alley, and this may be the second Thomas later listed as a printer. In 1805 Thomas and George were located at 116 High Street, and in 1806-1808 continued at 116 High Street and opened another business at 37 N 8th Street. In 1808 there was also a Thomas Palmer, printer, at 57 Mulberry Street, which may have been his home address or a different printer by that name. By 1809 Thomas and George were located at the corner of Locust and 8th Street, and a Thomas Palmer listed as a printer was at 61 Cherry Street, which again may have been the same or a different Thomas.

As their business grew the Palmers adapted to new opportunities. According to "A World not to Come" (Raul Cornado, Harvard University Press, 2013) and "Hemispheric American Studies" (Caroline Levander and Robert Levine, Rutgers University Press, 2007), Philadelphia was a major printing center in the colonial period. Until 1800 when the capital moved to Washington, Philadelphia was alive with political publishing. The Philadelphia presses were owned primarily by Anglo or Irish Catholics all within five blocks of one another and included Thomas and George Palmer. Although previously focused on local political markets, the expanding economy and changing political climate caused them to look outside Philadelphia. Among the works they printed were The Literary Magazine, 1803-4 and 1807 and The Philadelphia Medical Dictionary, John Redman Coxe, Philadelphia, 1808. Hispanic writers who had sufficient funds developed relationships with printers such as Thomas and George Palmer whose names appeared regularly as the printers of Spanish-language books. This researcher wonders if this market was enabled because his wife Elizabeth was fluent in Spanish.

George has not been located in the 1810 census and may have been living out of town when the census was taken. No Philadelphia City directory was published for 1812, but the 1810-1813 listings show Thomas and George's business located on the corner of Locust and 8th Street with their dwelling at 225 Spruce Street. A Thomas Palmer, printer was also listed in 1811 and 1813 at 61 Cherry Street, as in he was in 1809. Thomas and brothers George and James published in 1812-1814 The U.S. Historical Register, an early description of US geopoliical definition.

In 1814 the city directory indicated George and Thomas continued their business at the northwest corner of Locust and 8th Street and lived at 225 Spruce Street. A Thomas Palmer, printer was listed at the corner of Dock and Merchants Alley that year. No directory was published in 1815 and no Thomas Palmers were listed in 1816-1817, so George's brother may have had a separate business in 1814 or that man may have been the other Thomas Palmer who was a printer. George continued to be listed at the business and home locations in 1816 and 1817.

The brothers' business broke up following the financial panic of 1816, with James moving to Lexington, KY. George became ill with tuberculosis and retreated to New Orleans for his health, to die there in 1817, as reported in the Philadelphia newpapers. His brother Thomas continued the print business in 1818 at Locust above 8th Street and lived at 201 Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th streets; the streets were renumbered around 1860 to conform with numbered cross streets. Although widows were listed in the directory as being the widow of a named person, Eliza Palmer was not listed, indicating she was living in someone else's home or had moved away prior to her 1819 remarriage out of town.

"The Bookrunner: A History of Inter-American Relations—Print, Politics, and Commerce in the United States and Mexico, 1800–1830," Nancy Vogeley, (American Philosophical Society, 2011, p. 35-107) and "Men of Capital: Philadelphia Book Publishers in the New Republic," Rosalind Remer (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1996, p. 69) covers the history of the Philadelphia publishers and printers.

Probate papers were filed in the death of George Palmer, late of Philadelphia, printer, only two days after his death. "...That he has not to the knowledge of this petitioner any wife or relations or creditors except Doctr Flood & Mdm Clark in this city...." From the probate papers it is clear that George, the brother of Thomas H. Palmer, a city alderman in Philadelphia, had moved to New Orleans and was living at the boarding house of with Mdm. Clark on Charles St between St Peter and Toulouse streets when he died intestate. The estate account showed he was buried in New Orleans. The last action on the estate was 2 Jan 1818. None of the papers noted any family member, except for his brother Thomas. Whether George and Eliza were estranged is unknown, but George certainly had time to tell his landlady or friend that he had a wife before he died in New Orleans.


--1801-1817 Philadephia City Directories including Southwark and Northern Liberties and sometimes Kensington:
--George Palmer probate, New Orleans, LA, 12 Feb 1817, Louisiana, Orleans Parish Estate Files; Author: New Orleans (Louisiana). City Archives; Probate Place: Orleans, Louisiana.

Children of George Palmer and Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall


  1. [S564] Robert Palmer Research.
  2. [S568] Palmer-Wall Family Records.
  3. [S623] Palmer Family Records.
  4. [S624] Valeria Palmer Research.

Christina Wood1

F, ID# 576, (c 1822 - )
Father:William Bell Wood (c 1781 - Jul 1831)
Mother:Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall (11 Oct 1790 - 14 Sep 1825)
     Christina Wood was born c 1822 at Virginia. She was the daughter of William Bell Wood and Isabel / Elizabeth "Eliza" Wall.
      Upon the death of her mother, Christina Wood was adopted by her step-sister Susan Wood, most likely living in Franklin Co, TN. When Susan died of cholera in 1835, Christina was adopted by another step-sister Margaret Wood and her husband Gen Benjamin Swett Tappan while George Porter, the widower of Susan Wood, continued to pay Christina's expenses. The Tappans had already adopted Christina's sister Virginia and were likely also living in Franklin Co, TN.


  1. [S435] 1850 Vicksburg, MS Census, Mary Sargent Martin (1846-1914).

William Wood Porter1

M, ID# 577, (8 Sep 1826 - 17 Jan 1907)
Father:George Camp Porter (28 Mar 1804 - 28 Apr 1885)
Mother:Susan Madison Wood (5 Nov 1805 - 25 Aug 1833)
     William Wood Porter was born on 8 Sep 1826 at Orange Co, Virginia. He was the son of George Camp Porter and Susan Madison Wood. William Wood Porter married Elizabeth Osborne Dabney in 1866. William Wood Porter died on 17 Jan 1907 at Santa Rosa, California, at age 80.
      William Wood Porter was an American military officer and jurist who served as Associate Justice on the Arizona Territorial Supreme Court from 1885 until 1889.

He first lived in Tennessee, Mississippi -- where he got his law degree, and California. At the beginning of the American Civil War, Porter returned to Virginia and became a captain in the Confederate States Army. Initially he served as an aid to General George B. Crittenden. He served with gallantry during the battles of Mill Springs, Shiloh, and Raymond. After honorable mentions in his commander's reports, he joined General Joseph E. Johnston's staff. His service earned Porter a recommendation for promotion shortly before the war's end.

Detailed source:

--William Wood Porter,


  1. [S12] "Ella Virginia Auguste Perry (1870-1971) Research: Collection of hand-written Lanphier, Martin, Perry, Russell and Other Family Documents."

Mary "Maria" Stringer Gunn? Satchell1,2

F, ID# 578, (c 1798 - )
Father:William Satchell II (c 1770 - 1823)
Mother:Elizabeth B. Stringer (c 1770 - )
     Mary "Maria" Stringer Gunn? Satchell was born c 1798 at Northampton Co, Virginia. She was the daughter of William Satchell II and Elizabeth B. Stringer. Mary "Maria" Stringer Gunn? Satchell married Edward Baptist on 14 Mar 1820 at Northampton Co, Virginia. Mary "Maria" Stringer Gunn? Satchell married Levin S. Joynes II, son of LTC Levin Joynes I and Ann "Nancy" Smith, on 29 Jan 1824 at Northampton Co, Virginia.
      In a 4 Sep 1832 letter to Thomas Littleton Martin, Levin Joynes II noted "...and mother, Maria Gunn/Gusun[?] unites with me in love to you all;” this researcher believes this refers to his wife and her full name is Mary “Maria” Gunn/Gusun Stringer Satchell.

Child of Mary "Maria" Stringer Gunn? Satchell and Levin S. Joynes II


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.
  2. [S1] "Virginia Winslett Research."

Sarah Stockley Satchell1

F, ID# 579, (c 1800 - a 12 Nov 1818)
Father:William Satchell II (c 1770 - 1823)
Mother:Elizabeth B. Stringer (c 1770 - )
     Sarah Stockley Satchell was born c 1800 at Northampton Co, Virginia. She was the daughter of William Satchell II and Elizabeth B. Stringer. Sarah Stockley Satchell died a 12 Nov 1818.


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.

Susanna "Susan" S. Satchell1,2

F, ID# 580, (c 1802 - )
Father:William Satchell II (c 1770 - 1823)
Mother:Elizabeth B. Stringer (c 1770 - )
     Susanna "Susan" S. Satchell was born c 1802 at Northampton Co, Virginia. She was the daughter of William Satchell II and Elizabeth B. Stringer. Susanna "Susan" S. Satchell married Rev David M. Fackler on 5 Feb 1840 at Accomack Co, Virginia.


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.
  2. [S2] "Moody Miles Research."

Anne "Nancy" Bell1,2

F, ID# 581, (c 1760 - )
Father:Nathaniel Bell II (a 1734 - )
Mother:Susanna (Unknown) (a 1739 - )
     Anne "Nancy" Bell was born c 1760 at Accomack Co, Virginia. She was the daughter of Nathaniel Bell II and Susanna (Unknown). Anne "Nancy" Bell married Christopher Satchell, son of William Satchell I and Mary Stockley, on 28 Feb 1786 at Accomack Co, Virginia. Anne "Nancy" Bell was buried at 'Winding Dale', Belle Haven, Virginia.

Children of Anne "Nancy" Bell and Christopher Satchell


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.
  2. [S2] "Moody Miles Research."

Adah Satchell1,2

F, ID# 582, (c 1768 - b 10 Feb 1823)
Father:William Satchell I (c 1744 - b 14 Jan 1794)
Mother:Mary Stockley (c 1744 - )
     Adah Satchell was born c 1768 at Northampton Co, Virginia. She was the daughter of William Satchell I and Mary Stockley. Adah Satchell married William Snead, son of Smith Snead and Sophia Booth, on 16 Jan 1788. Adah Satchell married William Stratton on 11 Dec 1809 at Northampton Co, Virginia. Adah Satchell died b 10 Feb 1823 at Northampton Co, Virginia.


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.
  2. [S2] "Moody Miles Research."

William Snead1

M, ID# 583, (c 1758 - )
Father:Smith Snead2 (13 Jan 1718 - )
Mother:Sophia Booth (c 1728 - )
     William Snead was born c 1758. He was the son of Smith Snead and Sophia Booth.2 William Snead married Adah Satchell, daughter of William Satchell I and Mary Stockley, on 16 Jan 1788. His estate was probated on 8 Jan 1798 at Northampton Co, Virginia.


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.
  2. [S2] "Moody Miles Research."

Elizabeth Mitchell1,2

F, ID# 584, (27 Dec 1670 - )
Father:George Mitchell (a 1642 - b 5 Dec 1729)
Mother:Isabell Higgins (a 1648 - )
Charts:John Satchell Martin * lineage
     Elizabeth Mitchell was born on 27 Dec 1670 at Great Monie, Somerset Co, Maryland. She was the daughter of George Mitchell and Isabell Higgins. Elizabeth Mitchell married Thomas Dashiell I, son of James Dashiell I (Burgess) and Ann Cannon, in 1686 at Somerset Co, Maryland.

Children of Elizabeth Mitchell and Thomas Dashiell I


  1. [S35] William Clayton Torrence (1184-1953), Old Somerset on the Eastern Shore.
  2. [S66] Benjamin Jones Dashiell (1867- ), Dashiell Family.

William Stratton1

M, ID# 585, (a 1880 - )
     William Stratton married Adah Satchell, daughter of William Satchell I and Mary Stockley, on 11 Dec 1809 at Northampton Co, Virginia. William Stratton was born a 1880.


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.

Sarah P. Satchell1

F, ID# 586, (c 1800 - a 1 Nov 1829)
Father:Christopher Satchell (1766 - 1830)
Mother:Anne "Nancy" Bell (c 1760 - )
     Sarah P. Satchell was born c 1800. She was the daughter of Christopher Satchell and Anne "Nancy" Bell. Sarah P. Satchell died a 1 Nov 1829.


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.

Christopher 'Kit' Columbus Satchell1

M, ID# 587, (c 1805 - 1864)
Father:Christopher Satchell (1766 - 1830)
Mother:Anne "Nancy" Bell (c 1760 - )
     Christopher 'Kit' Columbus Satchell was born c 1805. He was the son of Christopher Satchell and Anne "Nancy" Bell. Christopher 'Kit' Columbus Satchell married Margaret Teakle Parramore c 1840. Christopher 'Kit' Columbus Satchell died in 1864.
      When life became too difficult for Christopher Columbus Satchell he committed suicide by taking some form of arsenic. He lingered several days in great agony and advised his friends never to try the same method. This incident was known in the family as a scandal.


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.

William Satchell1

M, ID# 588, (a 1827 - )
Father:Dr. Southy Stockley Satchell (20 Sep 1801 - 21 Nov 1873)
     William Satchell was born a 1827. He was the son of Dr. Southy Stockley Satchell.


  1. [S3] "Elizabeth Harriet Perry Research."

Henry Southey II1,2

M, ID# 589, (c 1607 - )
Father:Henry Southey I (c 1575 - b 1624/25)
     Henry Southey II was born c 1607. He was the son of Henry Southey I.


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.
  2. [S2] "Moody Miles Research."

Susan (Unknown)1

F, ID# 590, (a 1618 - )
     Susan (Unknown) was born a 1618. She married CPT William Whittington I a 1638.

Child of Susan (Unknown) and CPT William Whittington I


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.

Mary (Unknown)1

F, ID# 591, (a 1616 - )
Charts:Margaret Custis Russell * lineage
     Mary (Unknown) was born a 1616. She married CPT William Whittington I a 1636.

Child of Mary (Unknown) and CPT William Whittington I


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.

CPT William Spencer1

M, ID# 592, (c 1620 - )
     CPT William Spencer was born c 1620. He married Elizabeth Weston on 14 Jun 1660 at Northampton Co, Virginia.


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.

Ursula Whittington1,2

F, ID# 593, (a 1639 - 1681)
Father:CPT William Whittington I (c 1616 - 28 Sep 1659)
Mother:Susan (Unknown) (a 1618 - )
     Ursula Whittington was born a 1639 at England. She was the daughter of CPT William Whittington I and Susan (Unknown). Ursula Whittington married COL Edmund Scarburgh III, son of COL Edmund Scarburgh II (Burgess) and Mary Cade or Harmer, c 1668 at Accomack Co, Virginia. Ursula Whittington died in 1681.


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.
  2. [S2] "Moody Miles Research."

COL Edmund Scarburgh III1

M, ID# 594, (1646 - )
Father:COL Edmund Scarburgh II (Burgess) (Sep 1617 - May 1671)
Mother:Mary Cade or Harmer (c 1611 - )
     COL Edmund Scarburgh III was born in 1646 at Accomack Co, Virginia. He was the son of COL Edmund Scarburgh II (Burgess) and Mary Cade or Harmer. COL Edmund Scarburgh III married Ursula Whittington, daughter of CPT William Whittington I and Susan (Unknown), c 1668 at Accomack Co, Virginia. COL Edmund Scarburgh III married Elizabeth Mitchell, daughter of CPT William Mitchell I, Esq and Joan Toast, c 1681.

Children of COL Edmund Scarburgh III and Elizabeth Mitchell


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.

Nancy Martin1

F, ID# 595, (1759 - 1815)
Father:George Martin I (c 1732 - c 1797)
Mother:Mary Pope (a 1735 - )
     Nancy Martin was born in 1759 at Worcester Co, Maryland. She was the daughter of George Martin I and Mary Pope. Nancy Martin married John Spence, son of Adam Spence II and Anne Irving, a 1785 at Worcester Co, Maryland. Nancy Martin married MAJ James Martin Handy, son of MAJ Benjamin Handy I and Elizabeth 'Eliza' Martin, a 1789. Nancy Martin died in 1815.

Children of Nancy Martin and MAJ James Martin Handy


  1. [S44] Mark Clifford Lewis (1887-1970), "Martin Family of Worchester Co, MD."

Tabitha Scarburgh1,2,3,4

F, ID# 596, (c 1638 - )
Father:COL Edmund Scarburgh II (Burgess) (Sep 1617 - May 1671)
Mother:Mary Cade or Harmer (c 1611 - )
Charts:Margaret Custis Russell * lineage
     Tabitha Scarburgh was born c 1638 at Accomack Co, Virginia. She was the daughter of COL Edmund Scarburgh II (Burgess) and Mary Cade or Harmer. Tabitha Scarburgh married John Smart, son of William Smart I, b 12 Jul 1653 at Northampton Co, Virginia. Tabitha Scarburgh married Devereux Browne (Burgess) b 1660. Tabitha Scarburgh married MG John Custis II (of Arlington), son of Henry Custis and Joan (Unknown), a 1675. Tabitha Scarburgh married COL Edward Hill on 28 Sep 1696. Tabitha Scarburgh died in Dec 1717 at Accomack Co, Virginia. Her estate was probated on 7 Jan 1718 at Accomack Co, Virginia.
      Tabitha Scarburgh's marriages can be confusing because she married across two generations by first marrying John Smart who was a decade older than she and later marrying for her third husband Maj Gen John Custis who was two decades younger than she. This resulted in legal documents in which Tabitha Scarburgh refers to Tabitha Smart Whittington who was born in 1665 as her granddaughter (through her daughter from her first marriage Tabitha Scarburgh Smart who married Col William Whittington) and also as her her niece (through her last husband Maj Gen John Custis whose nephew Edmund Custis married Tabitha Smart Whittington.)

     Tabitha was named in a number of wills. She was noted as the relict of Mr Devoras Browne by George Watson in his 4 Nov 1674 will and also as the executrix (Accomack Co Wills, 1763-76 (v), p. 242.) Tabitha was named the 18 Mar 1691 will of her husband John Custis, Esquire in Northampton Co, VA as wife Tabitha Custis. It was noted she had a sister Matilda and a daughter Tabitha Smart deceased. Tabitha was named in the will of her mother Mary Scarburgh on 14 Jun 1691 at Accomack Co, VA.

Tabitha was named as Madame Tabitha Hill, my children’s great grandmother, in the 12 Aug 1700 will of Edmund Custis of Deep Creek, Accomack Co, VA. The will named Francis Makemie and Naomi his wife to act as executors with the advice of Madame Tabitha Hill. Tabitha Hill, the great grandmother of Edmund Custis' children Thomas Custis and Tabitha Scarburgh Custis, and was to be their advisor during their minority.

Tabitha's 23 Aug 1717 will in Accomack Co, VA named only a great grandson Thomas Custis and his wife Ann. She left him 700 acres near the placed called White Marsh and to his wife Ann, my wearing stays embroidered with gold, my black suit and silk clothes and black stays set with bugles with one cloath of silver pettycoat. Great grandson Thomas Custis was the residual legatee of all her estate in Virginia, England or elsewhere. Thomas Custis was the executor. Wittnesses: John Morrogh and Elizabeth Tilney.

Moody Miles detailed sources:

[S624] Virginia M. Meyer & John Frederick Dorman, Adventurers of Purse and Person, Virginia, 1607-1624/5, 3rd Edition.
[S570] Stratton Nottingham, Accomack Co, VA, Wills & Administrations, 1663-1800, p. 20 (will of Mary Scarburgh), p. 7 (will of George Watson), p. 31 (will of Edmund Custis of Deep Creek), p. 57 (will of Tabitha Hill), and p. 67 (will of Thomas Custis, wife Ann).
[S624] Virginia M. Meyer & John Frederick Dorman, Adventurers of Purse and Person, Virginia, 1607-1624/5, 3rd Edition, p. 544.
[S966] Cynthia McDaniel, to M.K. Miles.
[S497] James Handley Marshall, Northampton Co, VA, Abstracts of Wills & Administrations, 1632-1802, p. 151 (will of John Custis, Esq, wife Tabitha).
[S571] Stratton Nottingham, Accomack Co, VA, Land Causes, 1728-1825, p. 10 (Harry Holdfast (place holder) vs. Thomas Custis).

Child of Tabitha Scarburgh and John Smart

Child of Tabitha Scarburgh and Devereux Browne (Burgess)


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.
  2. [S3] "Elizabeth Harriet Perry Research."
  3. [S2] "Moody Miles Research."
  4. [S465] Wesley E. Pippenger and introduction by T. Michael Miller, John Alexander.

Dr Samuel Ker1

M, ID# 597, (a 1778 - )
     Dr Samuel Ker was born a 1778. He married Elizabeth Martin Handy, daughter of Levin Handy and Nancy Wilson, a 1803.


  1. [S13] Rebecca White Research.

(Unknown) Chiel (see de Chiel)

?, ID# 598

Henry Martin1

M, ID# 599, (a 1774 - )
Father:George Martin I (c 1732 - c 1797)
Mother:Mary Pope (a 1735 - )
     Henry Martin was born a 1774 at Worcester Co, Maryland. He was the son of George Martin I and Mary Pope.
      This may be the Henry Martin whose estate was in probate 11 Apr 1827 in Worcester Co, MD.


  1. [S44] Mark Clifford Lewis (1887-1970), "Martin Family of Worchester Co, MD."

Atalanta Toft1,2

F, ID# 600, (c 1664 - b 1696)
Father:COL Edmund Scarburgh II (Burgess) (Sep 1617 - May 1671)
Mother:Ann Toft (1643 - c 1688)
     Atalanta Toft was born c 1664 at Accomack Co, Virginia. She was the daughter of COL Edmund Scarburgh II (Burgess) and Ann Toft. Atalanta Toft married CPT John Osborne c 1680. Atalanta Toft married COL William Whittington II (Burgess), son of CPT William Whittington I and Mary (Unknown), b 1688 at Somerset Co, Maryland. Atalanta Toft died b 1696.
      Atalanta Taft first married John Osborne and then William Whittington.

Child of Atalanta Toft and CPT John Osborne

Child of Atalanta Toft and COL William Whittington II (Burgess)


  1. [S33] Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore.
  2. [S2] "Moody Miles Research."